I. DESIGN OF TUNNEL LIGHTING
II. COMMUNICATION SYSTEM OPERATING PRINCIPLES
III. HARDWARE OF CONTROL SYSTEM
IV. SOFTWARE OF CONTROL SYSTEM
In Bulgarian highway tunnels with 24 hours duty there are two independent monitoring systems: 1) for the electric power supply, the artificial lighting and the ventilation; 2) for the subsystems that secure the traffic safety traffic lights and signs, fire-alarm, video control. That gives the ability all of the tunnel subsystems to be simultaneously monitored with two computers. Each system has a database where all the information for their work is stored. In this material we deal with the aspects of the first system [16,18]. The described devices have been in use since 2000 in two Bulgarian highway tunnels (except dimming devices, which were developed in 2002).
Chapter one describes the improvement in the efficiency of the lighting installations in threshold and transition zones of road tunnels when circuit-dimming devices for high-pressure discharge lamps are used. Because of the high cost of dimming devices and the relatively low flux yield (luminous efficiency) of dimmed lamps, the optimal total number of circuits and the optimal configuration of dimmable circuits are found by solving an optimization problem. The objective is to minimize the annual operating expenses of artificial lighting, given an annual distribution of the adaptation luminance L20 and the traffic intensity in a tunnel.
Chapter two describes the communication system operating principles. Delivering information to, and receiving information from subordinate posts is done by current impulses throughout telephone pairs. The central station (CS) exchanges data with a network transformer and a current circuit adapter for multipoint connection. The data exchange during the positive half of the period is from the CS towards one of the subordinate posts, and during the negative half of the period in the opposite direction (20 mA for logical level 0 and 0 mA for logical level 1). The communication protocol permits direct utilization of the serial interfaces of the microcontrollers.
Chapter three and four describe the hardware and software of the tunnel lighting control system developed by our team.
Key Words: Tunnel Lighting, Design, Optimization, Control